Friday, June 5, 2020

Examining The Efficacy Of The World Trade Organization International - Free Essay Example

Multilateralism vs. Bilateralism: Examining the efficacy of the World Trade Organization and the Doha Round Introduction The age-old debate between the advocates and the detractors of the WTO and similar international trade-mediation organizations has always been about the efficacy of these organizations in todays world. Some claim that these organizations are nothing more than a bureaucratic behemoth; a throwback to the times when an economic superpower could bully and cajole relatively economically weaker nations into acceptance of inferior terms of trade. Some also claim that in todays world, with the dominance of regionalism and multilateral agreements within and between economic regions, the notion of economic bullying by a superpower is as outdated as the very organizations that purportedly defend it. The World Trade Organization The WTO came into existence on the 1st of January 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Trade Tariff (GATT). The primary objective of the WTO when it came into existence was to supervise and liberalize international trade. However, with the passage of time, it also became a mediatory body in cases of disputes between countries that were party to a WTO multilateral agreement. As of 2008, there were 153 member nations in the WTO, and 30 observer nations, who were awaiting membership. This ensured that when it came to the dispute resolution process, the WTO had sufficient negotiating power, by virtue of the strength of its membership. The Doha Round The Doha Round was the most recent trade negotiation round of the WTO, originating in Doha, Qatar in 2001. It then had subsequent ministerial-level negotiation rounds in Cancun, Mexico in 2003, and Hong Kong in 2005, accompanied by related negotiations in Geneva in 2002, 2004 and 2006, and Paris, France in 2005, and Potsdam, Germany in 2007. Objective: The overall objective of this round of the negotiations was to lower trade barriers around the world, and increase international trade. The specific agenda of the Doha Round encompassed 20 topics, with the following 3 main issues: Agriculture The Doha Round was dominated by discussions over agriculture. Agriculture is particularly important for developing countries, as a vast majority of the population in developing countries lives in rural (and primarily agricultural) areas. The first proposal in Qatar in 2001 called for the end agreement to commit to substantial improvements in market access; reductions (and ultimate elimination) of all forms of export subsidies; and substantial reductions in trade-distorting support.  [1] The European Union and developing countries, led by Brazil and India pressed the United States of America to reduce trade-distorting support to domestic agriculture. USA insisted that the EU and developing countries limit the number of import-sensitive and special products that were exempt from cuts, and that they substantially reduce tariffs. However, disagreements still abound over these contentious issues, and were one of the main reasons for the eventual failure of the Doha Round. Non-Agricultural Market Access This was meant to address the case of pharmaceutical products in case of health emergencies in developing countries. Under the terms of the TRIPS (Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights), countries or companies with an patent to produce a particular pharmaceutical drug were to compulsorily make them available to developing countries in case of an emergency, such as during the SARS outbreak, or the H1N1 epidemic. The Doha Round aimed to clarify some of the provisions of the TRIPS, as many developing nations felt the language wasnt clear enough. Special Differential Treatment In the first Doha Round, the ministers had affirmed that developing countries would be accorded special and differential treatment as compared to developed countries. However, there was a divide along the developed and developing countries on this issue. Developing countries wanted to negotiate changes on the SD provisions, and speed up deadlines, whereas the developed countries wanted time to study the SD provisions, and open-ended deadlines. Outcome: Talks in Geneva in July 2008 eventually stalled and broke down, after USA and an assortment of developing countries led by India and China failed to reach a compromise on agricultural import rules. In particular, there was insoluble disagreement between India and the USA over the special safeguard mechanism (SSM), which was meant to protect farmers in developing countries from price, falls or import surges, by allowing the governments of these countries to import a special tariff on agricultural products. Multilateralism Bilateralism The definitions of multilateralism and bilateralism are manifold. For the purposes of this paper, we will limit our definition based on the number of countries party to the agreement: in case of bilateralism, there are only 2 countries involved in a trade agreement, whereas in the case of multilateralism, there are 3 or more countries party to the agreement. Advantages of Multilateralism Bilateralism Multilateralism has often been called the weapon of choice for the developing country. While an economically weaker nation may be bullied by a stronger nation into accepting terms of trade that are not entirely beneficial to the weaker nation in a bilateral agreement, this would not take place in a multilateral trade agreement. By forming a trade bloc, weaker nations can band together to increase their collective bargaining power, and therefore force the erstwhile stronger nation into at least considering equitable terms of trade. In case of a multilateral agreement, the economic size of a country (in theory) fails to have any bearing on the outcome of any trade negotiation, as it is balanced by the collective economic strength of the other negotiating nations. In 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the USA attempted to pass a law to cancel a 30-year federal import-tariff subsidy on corn-ethanol imported from Brazil. This would ensure that corn-ethanol would now b e more expensive as compared to other sources of energy, leading to a drop in imports, directly affecting the Brazilian industry. As Brazil did not possess the economic clout to take on USA directly, it took the case to the WTO, who then stepped in to mediate in the negotiation. Had Brazil not been a part of the WTO, it would have been forced to accept the American terms, and suffer losses at home due to the vagaries of an economic super-power with far greater bargaining power. Multilateral agreements can help in far more than simply serving as a stronger bargaining tool. They can also protect countries from dumping situations, such as when Taiwan was dumping plastic retail bags in the USA at prices far below cost to create artificial competition, and drive out competitors from the market. Due to the WTOs strict Anti-Dumping Agreements, the USA was able to issue stringent import tariffs on these products, and prevent the situation from escalating further. However, despite the emergence of high profile multilateral organizations like the WTO and UN, most trade negotiation is still performed at the bilateral level. Bilateralism affords nations a degree of flexibility and ease of negotiation not accorded by the compromise driven system of multilateralism. In addition to this, bilateralism allows disparities in power, resources and technology to be exploited by the stronger nation to their advantage, thereby allowing them to dictate the terms of trade, unlike in multilateralism, where the one country one vote rule applies. One of the best examples would be the Canada-USA free trade agreement, which has shaped the open trading system in North America. Disadvantages of multilateralism bilateralism While obviously both multilateralism and bilateralism present many advantages, there are inherent disadvantages to both systems. In the case of multilateralism, negotiations can often be protracted to the point where they are no longer relevant to the current world economic situation. The best example would be the Doha Round, where although negotiations began in 2001, they could not be resolved even after 7 years! Multilateralism also removes the element of bullying from the negotiation, which while benefiting the weaker nation removes the strategic advantage of the nation with the stronger bargaining power. In case of bilateralism, the disadvantage is the polar opposite of multilateralism. While it benefits the country with stronger bargaining power, the country with lesser bargaining power is forced to accept inferior terms of trade in the course of the negotiation. Conclusion While both multilateralism and bilateralism have a unique set of advantages and disadvantages, it is clear that they are suitable to be applied in very different cases. Therefore, we could say, in theory, multilateralism suits developing countries, as it affords them a platform to band together, and negotiate for better terms of trade, whereas bilateralism on the other hand better suits developed countries, as they would have far greater bargaining power to mould terms of trade to their advantage. However, this conclusion is based purely on theory, assuming those non-economic factors such as technology, military power and other socio-political factors are not taken into consideration when defining the bargaining power of a country. In reality, all these factors make trade negotiation a complex blend of both multilateralism and bilateralism.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Job is a Starting Point - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1130 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/05/07 Category Law Essay Level High school Tags: Minimum Wage Essay Did you like this example? According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, almost half of all workers making minimum wage or less are less than 25 years old. At these ages, a large salary is not needed so why raise the minimum wage all the way to $15? Robert Reich of Minimum Wage Should Be Increased to $15 argues that raising the wage will overall benefit America when in reality it hurts more than it helps. While it will put more money in low wage workers, it will take money away from employers while not having any known definite benefits. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Job is a Starting Point" essay for you Create order Having a higher minimum wage is not needed for those earning it, it has a little effect on poverty, and makes it harder for companies to hire. When it comes to those who work minimum wage, they either do not have to worry about financial problems, or are not major breadwinners. The reason most minimum wage jobs require such little experience is so younger people and those less capable can make some sort of money. Reich explains how workers are becoming more productive today, but this would apply for the majority of the workforce who are the major breadwinners. For low wage workers, they are secondary earners an elderly parent earning some retirement income or a spouse with a part-time job. Or they are young people living with their parents(Hassett and Strain 1). When discussing teens and young adults, these types of jobs are a way to make some extra side cash for themselves so they do not have to rely on others. As Michael D. Tanner, head of domestic policies in Cato Institute, states, a minimum wage job is a starting point, not a destination(1). As one gets older and gains more experience, they have the opportunity to get promoted or a new better paying job. Low paying jobs arent made to be long term so they dont need to have high salaries. Matt Wilson, former deputy assistant secretary of the U.S. Department of Labor, states that even if a younger person does not work, many low wage workers live in families that are above the poverty line (3). Those not working can already be sustained due their family income. A high wage is unnecessary since the workers do not require a large income and already have some source of income. Those in poverty on the other hand do not even work in the first place. The go-to claim for raising the minimum wage involves helping those in poverty by putting more money in their pockets, but this cannot happen if the majority of those in poverty do not work in the first place. Many poor Americans (63.5%) do not work, and thus arent earning wages(Wilson 9). Poverty starts from not being able to find an earning. If the wage was pushed up to $15 per hour, it will only affect the few who still have their jobs and little to none of those who do not. Furthermore, any gains that come from poor households would be minimal. If the wage were to increase to even $9.50, only 11.3% percent of the workers who would gain live in poor households(Wilson 9). Because of the little impact raising the minimum wage would have on poor people, it should not be a concrete solution to solving poverty. Instead of making it easier to earn money and find a job, it will actually make it harder as companies would have to adapt to the change of payment. A higher wage will require employers to spend more money on their employees. While this will make it harder to find a job, it will also affect those already in the workforce too. Reich explains how the boost in money will allow for those earning it to spend more which will help spark the economy, but there will be less people able to actually spend that money since most will have trouble finding a job. According to a study done by Michael Hicks, Professor of Economics at Ball State University, he concluded that a 10 percent increase in the minimum wage results in a roughly 0.19 percent increase in unemployment, meaning the loss of about 160,00 jobs(Tanner 1). That means even an increase of about 73 cents to the minimum wage would account for the loss of 160,00 jobs. With a lack of jobs, there will be a lack of workers, meaning a lack of people spending that money. One reason for this would be in part of getting rid of jobs that are not necessarily needed, or that can be done with some sort of robot. In addition, companies will have to spend more money on employees which would make them less encouraged to hire more workers. Kristen Lopez Eastlick, senior economic analyst at the Employment Policies Institute states the increase of 25 cents per hour in 2009 resulted in $10,000 in annual costs for a business with 20 minimum wage employees (1). This ties back to most minimum wage workers being lower skilled or less capable people. An increase of wage would make it so employers would be more selective on their employees and search out those who are more skilled while getting rid of those who are not, like the younger workers. Instead of helping the poor and boosting the economy, a high minimum wage would actually make it harder to get a low wage job while not even fully benefiting the poor. If there was going to be any change in minimum wage, it should be done carefully and not so drastically. Raising the minimum wage from $7.25 to $15 is a large jump with no reasoning to back up it is increase. The consequences and downfalls are evident in raising the minimum wage, but a slow steady increase will allow for the economy to adapt while being able to keep track of it. Another solution would be requiring employers to give their workers fixed raises or promotions to accommodate for their productivity. As ones pay increases, they can spend more, allowing the economy to move. This will give boost in money in America which could be spent on job funding or even directly helping the poor. Solving poverty is not a quick, one solution task, but requires time and careful thought. A high minimum wage increase will ultimately lead to little effect on poverty and harm the workers. Arguments that are for the increase use the raise the minimum wage option as an easy solution that sounds good for everyone. What it does not account for is the increase of money spent by employers, which would cause a limit in hiring. Those already working the wage are already sustained, a high wage will not affect poverty, and it would result in a decrease of jobs. If it were as easy as just giving more money, poverty will not still be an issue today.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay Drama in Merchant of Venice - 799 Words

The Merchant of Venice is a romantic and funny play that has a lot of characters. In Shakespear times people found different things funny like insulting foreigners. There is always some form of drama in plays this makes the audience more excited and more into the play.One of the most dramatic plots in the play was when a wealthy heiress named Portia had to find a husband. Portia was a wealthy woman that inherited all her fathers money and her father left three caskets if someone wanted to marry her they would have to pick a casket if they pick the wrong casket they are never allowed to marry again but if they pick the right casket all of Portia wealth goes to her husband. Several men came to woo her in Act 1 Sc 2 Portia spent time†¦show more content†¦Portia finely says that she thinks worthy of Bassanio and Shakespeare has made the audience excited by adding the sound of trumpets and the Prince of Moroccobeing followed by hes servants that makes the audience think that hes rich. The Prince would do anything to win her hand in marriage even change hes skin colour.Portia also tells him the rules again so that he dont forget also Shakespeare uses proverbs so the the audience have to think more. When the Prince of Morocco saw the lead casket he sed why should I give up all I have for a lead casket. He thinks that he deserves her and if he chooses the silver casket he will marry Portia however he might not deserve to marry her so he will get nothing and the audience are getting just as excited as the Prince of Morocco. He chooses the gold casket this shows he is only after Portia for her money and thats why he Chooses the gold casket and sed lead was worthless. The Prince of Morocco was so sad that he chose the wrong casket and that he was brave that he chose a casket. Portia dont want to break hes heart so she does it gentle but she also says that all the other dark skinned people to chose the wrong casket. The audience get rid of all there stress. The Prince of Arragon has arrived with all his servants and people blowing trumpets. The audience is tense because they know something that the Prince dont know also Shakespeare makes Portia repeat the rules so the the audience dont forget after 8Show MoreRelatedCharacteristics Of Tragedy In The Merchant Of Venice939 Words   |  4 PagesThe Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare is often called a problem play because it does not neatly fit the characteristics of either a comedy or a tragedy. A tragedy is a drama or literary work in which one of the main characters is brought to ruin or suffer extreme sorrow, especially as a tragic flaw or moral weakness. The Merchant of Venice has a character that is brought to ruin. It also has many other characteristics of a tragedy. Most of the events being ser ious is one of the characteristicsRead MoreShakespeare and Anti-Semitism in the Merchant of Venice1489 Words   |  6 PagesAnti-Semitism and the desecration of the Jewish population have been in existence for nearly five thousand years. In the Elizabethan era, a question of anti-Semitism invariably arises. In William Shakespeares The Merchant of Venice, we find that one of the characters is the embodiment and expression of anti-Semitic attitude that is pervasive in Elizabethan society. Anti-Semitism was an intricate part in Shakespeares years. Jews were considered vile and scorned upon. Shakespeare presentsRead MoreThe Merchant of Venice Is a Tragicomedy....I Got 32/35 so Its a Good Essay1558 Words   |  7 PagesA tragedy is a drama or literary work in which the protagonist is brought to ruin or suffers sorrow, especially as a consequence of tragic flaw or moral weakness. Where as, a comedy is a drama or literary work, that is light and often humorous or satirical in tone and it usually contains a happy resolution of the thematic conflict. Thus, a tragicomedy is a fictional work that blends aspects of the genres tragedy and comedy. In Shakespeare’s time a tragicomedy referred to a serious play with a happyRead MoreEssay The Merchant of Venice Shylock Villain or Victim777 Words   |  4 PagesShylock, Villain or victim? The Merchant of Venice June 8th, 2011 In the play The Merchant of Venice Shylock is supposed to be the protagonist, the definition of protagonist is; the leading character or a major character in a drama, movie, novel, or other fictional text. But the way Shylock is portrayed is more along the lines of being both victim and villain. Shylock is out for one pound of Antonio’s flesh which will in the end kill Antonio and the flesh will do him no good anyway. But heRead MoreCommon Features of a Shakespeare Comedy1745 Words   |  7 Pagestricks Claudio into believing that his fiance has been unfaithful through mistaken identity. Characters also play scenes in disguise and it is not uncommon for female characters to disguise themselves as male characters, seen in Portia in the Merchant of venice. Shakespeare’s 17 comedies are the most difficult to classify because they overlap in style with other genres. Critics often describe some plays as tragi-comedies because they mix equal measures of tragedy and comedy. For example, Much AdoRead MoreLiterary Criticism Of William Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice 850 Words   |  4 PagesBy disallowing external influences, text must analyze all other disciplines associated with the play in question. Some have also criticized Shakespeare as being a master of only one single genre of drama as in relation to other plays. Feminist criticism Feminist approach applied to the Merchant of Venice is relatively a new area of study. The fundamental idea is that the western world is entirely patriarchal (created, ruled, and viewed through the eyes of men) (Janik 170). During the 1960s, the movementRead MoreEssay on Portia of William Shakespeares The Merchant Of Venice617 Words   |  3 PagesPortia of William Shakespeares The Merchant Of Venice The merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare in which is a drama, it shows us mercy, love and forgiveness. In this essay I’m going to write about Portia in comparison to the other male characters in the play. Shakespeare has created some very interesting characters in Bassanio, Antonio and Shylock. Bassanio and Antonio are good friends and they like most characters in the play, dislike Shylock the Jew. They haveRead MoreRole of Women in Shakespeares Plays - a Case Study of Macbeth and the Merchant of Venice1499 Words   |  6 Pagesnature and dependence on others found in Gertrude, each one of them has her own uniqueness. Role of Women Two main characters i.e. Lady Macbeth and Portia are discussed to highlight the role of women in Shakespeare’s â€Å"Macbeth† and â€Å"The Merchant of Venice†. Both these characters are very important and main female characters in these plays. Lady Macbeth Lady Macbeth  is a fictional character in  Shakespeares  Macbeth  (c.1603–1607). She is the wife to the plays protagonist,  Macbeth, a Scottish  noblemanRead MoreStereotypes and The Merchant of Venice1611 Words   |  7 PagesElizabethan literature was not in isolation from the currents of the era including these stereotypes. All these attitudes of ethnocentrism and xenophobia was skillfully interpreted through literature in general and drama in particular. One example of this is Shakespeares The Merchant of Venice which is about a miser money-lender Jew. Portrayal of the Jews was a long-standing tradition by Shakespeares time as E. E. Stoll argues: A miser, a money-lender, a Jew – all three had from time immemorial beenRead MoreRacial Discrimination In The Merchant Of Venice1496 Words   |  6 Pagesdiscriminated against Jews extensively. This was most prominent in Venice and England. Jews were forced to live on an island called the Ghetto in Venice and were cruelly oppressed throughout history in the Italian city.. In the 1200s, Jews were banned from England. Finally, they started to come back in the 1600s but had limitations because they were known for their high intelligence compared to the English, as well as in Venice. In Venice they were only allowed to be usurers, or loaners that demand high

Continuous Improvement the Products

Question: Discuss about the Continuous Improvement the Products. Answer: Introduction The business professionals continually test their in order to discover and eliminate the issues or consequences to support continuous improvement (Backlund, Chroner and Sundqvist 2014). On the other hand, continuous improvement aims to consistently serving in order to improvise the products or services of the companies with respect to the highest standard. Therefore, this study is aimed to illustrate and analyze the continuous improvement plan in the engineering and construction aspect. Moreover, all the important and necessary components of the continuous improvement plan are aimed to be described in this study. In addition, this study presents a pictorial overview of continuous improvement plan. The case study based on the Major Building and Construction Contract implemented by Queensland Rail Limited has been chosen for conducting this entire study. Furthermore, the most crucial part of this study is to meet all the fundamental learning needs of the unit such as the knowledge abou t the performance of the fundamental skills and the basic concepts. Apart from that, another aim of continuous improvement plan is to be portrayed with the imagination, originality or flair based on the proficiency in all the outcomes of learning. Discussion Textual Overview of Continuous Improvement in Organizations Continuous Improvement is a crucial and continuous effort which plays a significant role in order to improvise the products, services or processes (Sanchez and Blanco 2014). On the other hand, the specific efforts are capable enough of seeking the breakthrough the improvisation all at once or the increasing improvisation over a specific timeline. In addition, the terms continuous improvement and continual improvement are frequently and interchangeably used. The most widely used continuous improvement tool is the Plan-do-check-act cycle, which is a four-step quality model (Rubenstein et al. 2014). It is such a process that is capable enough of achieving the increased and appropriate quality of service associated with the customer focus, simplified processes and procedures, internal and external customer recognition and attitudinal change in the long term. Apart from that, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management as well as Lean M anagement are the other very popular tools to implement the continuous improvement in the business operations (Peng, Feifei and Pei 2014). These particular tools can effectively highlight the employee involvement and teamwork by measuring as well as systematizing processes and minimizing variation, defects and cycle times. Most important fact associated with continuous improvement is that this process has become the essence for the businesses. Figure 1: Pictorial Overview of Continuous Improvement Plan (Source: Rosemann and vom Brocke 2015, p.106) Continuous Improvement plan can satisfy very effectively the value of the consumers and can be very efficient in eliminating the waste as well in the business processes of a company. The simplest and the most crucial thing to do during beginning of a continual improvement over a particular project is for interacting in a proper manner with organization and its clients that an individual desire for continually improvising the provided services (Delgado et al. 2014). Therefore, the kind of desire can be stated through the strategic reviews and team briefings. Thus, the implementation of the plan for continuous improvement can play a very important and pivotal role for the major construction and building contract undertaken by Queensland Rail Limited. As per the general conditions portrayed in this contract, this tender should follow an annexure list. On the other hand, this particular annexure list is mainly comprised of the clauses those should be deleted, amended or added to the Australian Standard General Conditions of Contract AS 2124-1992 (Bernhardt 2013). Moreover, these clauses should also be read or interpreted as the components of this particular contract. These amendments and deletions are aimed mainly to be implemented in order to improvise the clauses for this contract. In addition, a continual improvement plan should be implemented effectively during these modifications over the contract due to the fact that the minor items are not expressly mentioned. Nevertheless, these items are significant for the satisfactory completion and performance of the work under the contract (Lam, O'Donnell and Robertson 2015). These items should be supplied and executed by the contractor at the own costing of the contract and are also estimated to be included in the Contracts sum. On the other side, the continuous improvement plan can also significantly play an essential role to remove the errors in the Bills of Quantities. Purpose of the Continuous Improvement Plan Implementation the continual improvement plan should be implemented for the improvisation of this contract in order to accomplish few specific purposes. Therefore, the contractor should ensure and comply with that all and any of the subcontractors or the other people, who are engaged in performing the work within this contract with the complete safety legislation and requirements (Singh and Singh 2015). On the other hand, the appropriate safety precautions and programs are managed so as to prevent the injury towards the people and damaging the property arising out of the performance of work within this tender. Apart from that, the principal of any particular happening should be properly and promptly notified that is required to be reported to any legislative authority and cooperated with the principal and the superintendent related to this happening. Moreover, it should also be comprised of providing details and the documentation to the sup erintendent and the Principal as requested in regards to the incident (Sundqvist and Backlund 2014). Therefore, the actions should be cooperated, consulted and coordinated with the principal and superintendent. In addition, the contractor should ensure that all the subcontractors are engaged with performing any work segment within this contract. Furthermore, the contractor should have the compliance with the Work Health and Safety Management Plan of the principal (Francis and Mazany 2013). Thus, the contractor has to undertake the Safety Site Instructions and Site specific Health. Continuous Improvement Plan by amending the clauses from general conditions in AS2124-1992 - Goal No Objective Target Related Procedures Action Target Date Status Date Completed Assigned Responsibility Required Additional Resources 1. Construction of Contract Replacement of few improper words for making an improved contract Replacement of words on the contract Deletion of or territory stated in the Annexure 10th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A Word addition of of Queensland and the parties agree to submit to the jurisdiction of The courts of the state of Queensland (McLean and Antony 2014). 2. Resourcing to Converse security and Retention Money Recourse for the maintenance of cash security as well as moneys Principal to money security conversion Security conversion and retention of money Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 3. Minimization of Retention moneys and Security Incorporating the words or where there are Separable Portions upon issue of the last of the certificates of Practical Completion Amending words in the contract to assure security and retention moneys Appropriate word addition 11th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 4. Service of Notices Amending some words in the final paragraphs for improvising the tender Payment Service of the contractor on principal should be made properly (Goetsch and Davis 2014). Superintendent can accomplish signing and issuing of schedules for payment to the contractor. Contractor should ensure that within 24 hours after any notice under the BCIP Act is received or given by the contractor in the form of a copy of that particular notice Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 5. Termination of Nominated Subcontract Prohibition of subcontract termination for nominated subcontract can work without the approval of superintendents Statement addition not about subcontract termination is implemented by the deletion of the first sentence in the tender Termination of subcontract without the approval of superintendent should be stopped 12th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 6. Extension of cost and time Permitting the extension on time and cost for the projects N/A Cost and Time extension by modifying the contract Ongoing scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 7. Property and People Protection Ensuring protection of property and people by modifying this clause An item should be given where the importance of its provision is conveyed for normal safe working (Sessa and London 2015). Protection of people and their property Ongoing scheduled N/A contractor N/A 8. Costs for Delay Contractor must not be unconstrained to recuperate financial compensation for delay to reach practical accomplishment Determination of costs of component for proper delay. A new clause amendment regarding delay cost in place of clause 36 Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 9. Workers and Subcontractors payment Improvement of payment system for subcontractors and workers as well. Incorporation of Payment Recording System, Statement Naming Subcontractors, Record of Payment System, Statutory Declaration, Payment on behalf of Contractor, and Documentary Evidence Amending clause which includes the implementation of these systems for improving the payment system (Kohlbacher 2013). Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 10. Workplace Health and Safety Improving the factors of health and safety for employees in this construction project. Safety legislation incorporation in regards to occupational health and safety for meeting the safety requirement. Clause amendment regarding the factors of workplace health and safety and requirement in the constructional area Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 11. Rail Safety Workers Compliance with the Transport Requirement Act. Ensuring commences of rail safety work, person including its workers accomplishing the rail safety work. Make competent enough to continue the safety work and assess competence. Implementation a medical assessment. Ongoing scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 12. Training Policy Addition of 50 clauses about improving training system by meeting few essential purposes. Compliances should be fulfilled along with the training policy clauses 50 new clause addition for establishing a proper training system. Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 13. Compliance with Principal Policy Compliance with the essences of the entire policies, specifications and standards of principal whilst the conduction of undertaking services, works or the supply of goods Limitation does not lie in the Code of conduct of Principal in force, introduced or amended while the term or any extended contract term New clause addition by stressing on the compliance with principal policies Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A Continuous Improvement Plan by removing the clauses from general conditions in AS2124-1992 Goal No Objective Target Related Procedures Action Target Date Status Date Completed Assigned Responsibility Required Additional Resources 1. Clause Deletion from general conditions in AS2124-1992 Direct payment of the Nominated Subcontractor N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the contract Contractor N/A Unpaid money recourse N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the tender or contract Contractor N/A Protection made by the Principal N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the tender or contract. Contractor N/A The continual improvement plans portrayed above have illustrated properly the understanding and the awareness of the less obvious aspects and the deepened aspects of the unit as well such as the ability to debate and identify the crucial issues or problems. Most importantly, the above portrayed continuous improvement plans have significantly tried for addressing the consequences (Holtskog 2013). Therefore, the continual improvement plans have been able to evaluate and invent the new concepts in order to amend or add the new clauses under the contract of the Queensland Rail project in the domain of Engineering and Construction Conclusion The entire analysis made in this study has successfully shed light on the significance and effectiveness of the continuous improvement plan. Therefore, the continual improvement plan portrayed based on the construction and engineering has successfully convey its significances. On the other hand, from this particular study, it can also be seen that it has reflected significantly the ability to apply and use the fundamental skills and concepts of the unit by going beyond the mere replication of content or skill knowledge to show the understanding regarding key originality or insight and concepts that there are some amendments and deletion have been implemented within this contract. Moreover, these modifications have been implemented simply to improve the entire tender by deleting few clauses and by amending few clauses. Apart from that, this study has also designed individually two tabular representations for both the addition and deletion of the tender clauses for conveying the improv ement areas within the tender. References Backlund, F., Chroner, D. and Sundqvist, E., 2014. Project management maturity modelsA critical review: A case study within Swedish engineering and construction organizations.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,119, pp.837-846. Bernhardt, V., 2013.Data, Data, Everywhere: Bringing All the Data Together for Continuous School Improvement. Routledge. Delgado, A., Weber, B., Ruiz, F., De Guzmn, I.G.R. and Piattini, M., 2014. An integrated approach based on execution measures for the continuous improvement of business processes realized by services.Information and Software Technology,56(2), pp.134-162. Francis, S.D. and Mazany, P.C., 2013. Developing elements of a learning organization in a metropolitan ambulance service: strategy, team development and continuous improvement.Health manpower management. Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014.Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Holtskog, H., 2013. Continuous improvement beyond the lean understanding.Procedia CIRP,7, pp.575-579. Kohlbacher, M., 2013. The impact of dynamic capabilities through continuous improvement on innovation: the role of business process orientation.Knowledge and Process Management,20(2), pp.71-76. Lam, M., O'Donnell, M. and Robertson, D., 2015. Achieving employee commitment for continuous improvement initiatives.International Journal of Operations Production Management,35(2), pp.201-215. McLean, R. and Antony, J., 2014. Why continuous improvement initiatives fail in manufacturing environments? A systematic review of the evidence.International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management,63(3), pp.370-376. Peng, Z., Feifei, Z. and Pei, Z., 2014, October. Research on the evaluation method of customer satisfaction index and its improvement in drilling engineering technology. InIntelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA), 2014 7th International Conference on(pp. 972-978). IEEE. Rosemann, M. and vom Brocke, J., 2015. The six core elements of business process management. InHandbook on business process management 1(pp. 105-122). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Rubenstein, L., Khodyakov, D., Hempel, S., Danz, M., Salem-Schatz, S., Foy, R., O'neill, S., Dalal, S. and Shekelle, P., 2014. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?.International Journal for Quality in Health Care,26(1), pp.6-15. Sanchez, L. and Blanco, B., 2014. Three decades of continuous improvement.Total Quality Management Business Excellence,25(9-10), pp.986-1001. Sessa, V.I. and London, M., 2015.Continuous learning in organizations: Individual, group, and organizational perspectives. Psychology Press. Singh, J. and Singh, H., 2015. Continuous improvement philosophyliterature review and directions.Benchmarking: An International Journal,22(1), pp.75-119. Sundqvist, E. and Backlund, F., 2014. Continuous improvement in project-based organizations?: A management perspective. InQMOD conference on Quality and Service Sciences: 03/09/2014-05/09/2014.

Continuous Improvement the Products

Question: Discuss about the Continuous Improvement the Products. Answer: Introduction The business professionals continually test their in order to discover and eliminate the issues or consequences to support continuous improvement (Backlund, Chroner and Sundqvist 2014). On the other hand, continuous improvement aims to consistently serving in order to improvise the products or services of the companies with respect to the highest standard. Therefore, this study is aimed to illustrate and analyze the continuous improvement plan in the engineering and construction aspect. Moreover, all the important and necessary components of the continuous improvement plan are aimed to be described in this study. In addition, this study presents a pictorial overview of continuous improvement plan. The case study based on the Major Building and Construction Contract implemented by Queensland Rail Limited has been chosen for conducting this entire study. Furthermore, the most crucial part of this study is to meet all the fundamental learning needs of the unit such as the knowledge abou t the performance of the fundamental skills and the basic concepts. Apart from that, another aim of continuous improvement plan is to be portrayed with the imagination, originality or flair based on the proficiency in all the outcomes of learning. Discussion Textual Overview of Continuous Improvement in Organizations Continuous Improvement is a crucial and continuous effort which plays a significant role in order to improvise the products, services or processes (Sanchez and Blanco 2014). On the other hand, the specific efforts are capable enough of seeking the breakthrough the improvisation all at once or the increasing improvisation over a specific timeline. In addition, the terms continuous improvement and continual improvement are frequently and interchangeably used. The most widely used continuous improvement tool is the Plan-do-check-act cycle, which is a four-step quality model (Rubenstein et al. 2014). It is such a process that is capable enough of achieving the increased and appropriate quality of service associated with the customer focus, simplified processes and procedures, internal and external customer recognition and attitudinal change in the long term. Apart from that, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management as well as Lean M anagement are the other very popular tools to implement the continuous improvement in the business operations (Peng, Feifei and Pei 2014). These particular tools can effectively highlight the employee involvement and teamwork by measuring as well as systematizing processes and minimizing variation, defects and cycle times. Most important fact associated with continuous improvement is that this process has become the essence for the businesses. Figure 1: Pictorial Overview of Continuous Improvement Plan (Source: Rosemann and vom Brocke 2015, p.106) Continuous Improvement plan can satisfy very effectively the value of the consumers and can be very efficient in eliminating the waste as well in the business processes of a company. The simplest and the most crucial thing to do during beginning of a continual improvement over a particular project is for interacting in a proper manner with organization and its clients that an individual desire for continually improvising the provided services (Delgado et al. 2014). Therefore, the kind of desire can be stated through the strategic reviews and team briefings. Thus, the implementation of the plan for continuous improvement can play a very important and pivotal role for the major construction and building contract undertaken by Queensland Rail Limited. As per the general conditions portrayed in this contract, this tender should follow an annexure list. On the other hand, this particular annexure list is mainly comprised of the clauses those should be deleted, amended or added to the Australian Standard General Conditions of Contract AS 2124-1992 (Bernhardt 2013). Moreover, these clauses should also be read or interpreted as the components of this particular contract. These amendments and deletions are aimed mainly to be implemented in order to improvise the clauses for this contract. In addition, a continual improvement plan should be implemented effectively during these modifications over the contract due to the fact that the minor items are not expressly mentioned. Nevertheless, these items are significant for the satisfactory completion and performance of the work under the contract (Lam, O'Donnell and Robertson 2015). These items should be supplied and executed by the contractor at the own costing of the contract and are also estimated to be included in the Contracts sum. On the other side, the continuous improvement plan can also significantly play an essential role to remove the errors in the Bills of Quantities. Purpose of the Continuous Improvement Plan Implementation the continual improvement plan should be implemented for the improvisation of this contract in order to accomplish few specific purposes. Therefore, the contractor should ensure and comply with that all and any of the subcontractors or the other people, who are engaged in performing the work within this contract with the complete safety legislation and requirements (Singh and Singh 2015). On the other hand, the appropriate safety precautions and programs are managed so as to prevent the injury towards the people and damaging the property arising out of the performance of work within this tender. Apart from that, the principal of any particular happening should be properly and promptly notified that is required to be reported to any legislative authority and cooperated with the principal and the superintendent related to this happening. Moreover, it should also be comprised of providing details and the documentation to the sup erintendent and the Principal as requested in regards to the incident (Sundqvist and Backlund 2014). Therefore, the actions should be cooperated, consulted and coordinated with the principal and superintendent. In addition, the contractor should ensure that all the subcontractors are engaged with performing any work segment within this contract. Furthermore, the contractor should have the compliance with the Work Health and Safety Management Plan of the principal (Francis and Mazany 2013). Thus, the contractor has to undertake the Safety Site Instructions and Site specific Health. Continuous Improvement Plan by amending the clauses from general conditions in AS2124-1992 - Goal No Objective Target Related Procedures Action Target Date Status Date Completed Assigned Responsibility Required Additional Resources 1. Construction of Contract Replacement of few improper words for making an improved contract Replacement of words on the contract Deletion of or territory stated in the Annexure 10th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A Word addition of of Queensland and the parties agree to submit to the jurisdiction of The courts of the state of Queensland (McLean and Antony 2014). 2. Resourcing to Converse security and Retention Money Recourse for the maintenance of cash security as well as moneys Principal to money security conversion Security conversion and retention of money Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 3. Minimization of Retention moneys and Security Incorporating the words or where there are Separable Portions upon issue of the last of the certificates of Practical Completion Amending words in the contract to assure security and retention moneys Appropriate word addition 11th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 4. Service of Notices Amending some words in the final paragraphs for improvising the tender Payment Service of the contractor on principal should be made properly (Goetsch and Davis 2014). Superintendent can accomplish signing and issuing of schedules for payment to the contractor. Contractor should ensure that within 24 hours after any notice under the BCIP Act is received or given by the contractor in the form of a copy of that particular notice Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 5. Termination of Nominated Subcontract Prohibition of subcontract termination for nominated subcontract can work without the approval of superintendents Statement addition not about subcontract termination is implemented by the deletion of the first sentence in the tender Termination of subcontract without the approval of superintendent should be stopped 12th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 6. Extension of cost and time Permitting the extension on time and cost for the projects N/A Cost and Time extension by modifying the contract Ongoing scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 7. Property and People Protection Ensuring protection of property and people by modifying this clause An item should be given where the importance of its provision is conveyed for normal safe working (Sessa and London 2015). Protection of people and their property Ongoing scheduled N/A contractor N/A 8. Costs for Delay Contractor must not be unconstrained to recuperate financial compensation for delay to reach practical accomplishment Determination of costs of component for proper delay. A new clause amendment regarding delay cost in place of clause 36 Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 9. Workers and Subcontractors payment Improvement of payment system for subcontractors and workers as well. Incorporation of Payment Recording System, Statement Naming Subcontractors, Record of Payment System, Statutory Declaration, Payment on behalf of Contractor, and Documentary Evidence Amending clause which includes the implementation of these systems for improving the payment system (Kohlbacher 2013). Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 10. Workplace Health and Safety Improving the factors of health and safety for employees in this construction project. Safety legislation incorporation in regards to occupational health and safety for meeting the safety requirement. Clause amendment regarding the factors of workplace health and safety and requirement in the constructional area Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 11. Rail Safety Workers Compliance with the Transport Requirement Act. Ensuring commences of rail safety work, person including its workers accomplishing the rail safety work. Make competent enough to continue the safety work and assess competence. Implementation a medical assessment. Ongoing scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 12. Training Policy Addition of 50 clauses about improving training system by meeting few essential purposes. Compliances should be fulfilled along with the training policy clauses 50 new clause addition for establishing a proper training system. Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 13. Compliance with Principal Policy Compliance with the essences of the entire policies, specifications and standards of principal whilst the conduction of undertaking services, works or the supply of goods Limitation does not lie in the Code of conduct of Principal in force, introduced or amended while the term or any extended contract term New clause addition by stressing on the compliance with principal policies Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A Continuous Improvement Plan by removing the clauses from general conditions in AS2124-1992 Goal No Objective Target Related Procedures Action Target Date Status Date Completed Assigned Responsibility Required Additional Resources 1. Clause Deletion from general conditions in AS2124-1992 Direct payment of the Nominated Subcontractor N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the contract Contractor N/A Unpaid money recourse N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the tender or contract Contractor N/A Protection made by the Principal N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the tender or contract. Contractor N/A The continual improvement plans portrayed above have illustrated properly the understanding and the awareness of the less obvious aspects and the deepened aspects of the unit as well such as the ability to debate and identify the crucial issues or problems. Most importantly, the above portrayed continuous improvement plans have significantly tried for addressing the consequences (Holtskog 2013). Therefore, the continual improvement plans have been able to evaluate and invent the new concepts in order to amend or add the new clauses under the contract of the Queensland Rail project in the domain of Engineering and Construction Conclusion The entire analysis made in this study has successfully shed light on the significance and effectiveness of the continuous improvement plan. Therefore, the continual improvement plan portrayed based on the construction and engineering has successfully convey its significances. On the other hand, from this particular study, it can also be seen that it has reflected significantly the ability to apply and use the fundamental skills and concepts of the unit by going beyond the mere replication of content or skill knowledge to show the understanding regarding key originality or insight and concepts that there are some amendments and deletion have been implemented within this contract. Moreover, these modifications have been implemented simply to improve the entire tender by deleting few clauses and by amending few clauses. Apart from that, this study has also designed individually two tabular representations for both the addition and deletion of the tender clauses for conveying the improv ement areas within the tender. References Backlund, F., Chroner, D. and Sundqvist, E., 2014. Project management maturity modelsA critical review: A case study within Swedish engineering and construction organizations.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,119, pp.837-846. Bernhardt, V., 2013.Data, Data, Everywhere: Bringing All the Data Together for Continuous School Improvement. Routledge. Delgado, A., Weber, B., Ruiz, F., De Guzmn, I.G.R. and Piattini, M., 2014. An integrated approach based on execution measures for the continuous improvement of business processes realized by services.Information and Software Technology,56(2), pp.134-162. Francis, S.D. and Mazany, P.C., 2013. Developing elements of a learning organization in a metropolitan ambulance service: strategy, team development and continuous improvement.Health manpower management. Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014.Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Holtskog, H., 2013. Continuous improvement beyond the lean understanding.Procedia CIRP,7, pp.575-579. Kohlbacher, M., 2013. The impact of dynamic capabilities through continuous improvement on innovation: the role of business process orientation.Knowledge and Process Management,20(2), pp.71-76. Lam, M., O'Donnell, M. and Robertson, D., 2015. Achieving employee commitment for continuous improvement initiatives.International Journal of Operations Production Management,35(2), pp.201-215. McLean, R. and Antony, J., 2014. Why continuous improvement initiatives fail in manufacturing environments? A systematic review of the evidence.International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management,63(3), pp.370-376. Peng, Z., Feifei, Z. and Pei, Z., 2014, October. Research on the evaluation method of customer satisfaction index and its improvement in drilling engineering technology. InIntelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA), 2014 7th International Conference on(pp. 972-978). IEEE. Rosemann, M. and vom Brocke, J., 2015. The six core elements of business process management. InHandbook on business process management 1(pp. 105-122). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Rubenstein, L., Khodyakov, D., Hempel, S., Danz, M., Salem-Schatz, S., Foy, R., O'neill, S., Dalal, S. and Shekelle, P., 2014. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?.International Journal for Quality in Health Care,26(1), pp.6-15. Sanchez, L. and Blanco, B., 2014. Three decades of continuous improvement.Total Quality Management Business Excellence,25(9-10), pp.986-1001. Sessa, V.I. and London, M., 2015.Continuous learning in organizations: Individual, group, and organizational perspectives. Psychology Press. Singh, J. and Singh, H., 2015. Continuous improvement philosophyliterature review and directions.Benchmarking: An International Journal,22(1), pp.75-119. Sundqvist, E. and Backlund, F., 2014. Continuous improvement in project-based organizations?: A management perspective. InQMOD conference on Quality and Service Sciences: 03/09/2014-05/09/2014.

Continuous Improvement the Products

Question: Discuss about the Continuous Improvement the Products. Answer: Introduction The business professionals continually test their in order to discover and eliminate the issues or consequences to support continuous improvement (Backlund, Chroner and Sundqvist 2014). On the other hand, continuous improvement aims to consistently serving in order to improvise the products or services of the companies with respect to the highest standard. Therefore, this study is aimed to illustrate and analyze the continuous improvement plan in the engineering and construction aspect. Moreover, all the important and necessary components of the continuous improvement plan are aimed to be described in this study. In addition, this study presents a pictorial overview of continuous improvement plan. The case study based on the Major Building and Construction Contract implemented by Queensland Rail Limited has been chosen for conducting this entire study. Furthermore, the most crucial part of this study is to meet all the fundamental learning needs of the unit such as the knowledge abou t the performance of the fundamental skills and the basic concepts. Apart from that, another aim of continuous improvement plan is to be portrayed with the imagination, originality or flair based on the proficiency in all the outcomes of learning. Discussion Textual Overview of Continuous Improvement in Organizations Continuous Improvement is a crucial and continuous effort which plays a significant role in order to improvise the products, services or processes (Sanchez and Blanco 2014). On the other hand, the specific efforts are capable enough of seeking the breakthrough the improvisation all at once or the increasing improvisation over a specific timeline. In addition, the terms continuous improvement and continual improvement are frequently and interchangeably used. The most widely used continuous improvement tool is the Plan-do-check-act cycle, which is a four-step quality model (Rubenstein et al. 2014). It is such a process that is capable enough of achieving the increased and appropriate quality of service associated with the customer focus, simplified processes and procedures, internal and external customer recognition and attitudinal change in the long term. Apart from that, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management as well as Lean M anagement are the other very popular tools to implement the continuous improvement in the business operations (Peng, Feifei and Pei 2014). These particular tools can effectively highlight the employee involvement and teamwork by measuring as well as systematizing processes and minimizing variation, defects and cycle times. Most important fact associated with continuous improvement is that this process has become the essence for the businesses. Figure 1: Pictorial Overview of Continuous Improvement Plan (Source: Rosemann and vom Brocke 2015, p.106) Continuous Improvement plan can satisfy very effectively the value of the consumers and can be very efficient in eliminating the waste as well in the business processes of a company. The simplest and the most crucial thing to do during beginning of a continual improvement over a particular project is for interacting in a proper manner with organization and its clients that an individual desire for continually improvising the provided services (Delgado et al. 2014). Therefore, the kind of desire can be stated through the strategic reviews and team briefings. Thus, the implementation of the plan for continuous improvement can play a very important and pivotal role for the major construction and building contract undertaken by Queensland Rail Limited. As per the general conditions portrayed in this contract, this tender should follow an annexure list. On the other hand, this particular annexure list is mainly comprised of the clauses those should be deleted, amended or added to the Australian Standard General Conditions of Contract AS 2124-1992 (Bernhardt 2013). Moreover, these clauses should also be read or interpreted as the components of this particular contract. These amendments and deletions are aimed mainly to be implemented in order to improvise the clauses for this contract. In addition, a continual improvement plan should be implemented effectively during these modifications over the contract due to the fact that the minor items are not expressly mentioned. Nevertheless, these items are significant for the satisfactory completion and performance of the work under the contract (Lam, O'Donnell and Robertson 2015). These items should be supplied and executed by the contractor at the own costing of the contract and are also estimated to be included in the Contracts sum. On the other side, the continuous improvement plan can also significantly play an essential role to remove the errors in the Bills of Quantities. Purpose of the Continuous Improvement Plan Implementation the continual improvement plan should be implemented for the improvisation of this contract in order to accomplish few specific purposes. Therefore, the contractor should ensure and comply with that all and any of the subcontractors or the other people, who are engaged in performing the work within this contract with the complete safety legislation and requirements (Singh and Singh 2015). On the other hand, the appropriate safety precautions and programs are managed so as to prevent the injury towards the people and damaging the property arising out of the performance of work within this tender. Apart from that, the principal of any particular happening should be properly and promptly notified that is required to be reported to any legislative authority and cooperated with the principal and the superintendent related to this happening. Moreover, it should also be comprised of providing details and the documentation to the sup erintendent and the Principal as requested in regards to the incident (Sundqvist and Backlund 2014). Therefore, the actions should be cooperated, consulted and coordinated with the principal and superintendent. In addition, the contractor should ensure that all the subcontractors are engaged with performing any work segment within this contract. Furthermore, the contractor should have the compliance with the Work Health and Safety Management Plan of the principal (Francis and Mazany 2013). Thus, the contractor has to undertake the Safety Site Instructions and Site specific Health. Continuous Improvement Plan by amending the clauses from general conditions in AS2124-1992 - Goal No Objective Target Related Procedures Action Target Date Status Date Completed Assigned Responsibility Required Additional Resources 1. Construction of Contract Replacement of few improper words for making an improved contract Replacement of words on the contract Deletion of or territory stated in the Annexure 10th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A Word addition of of Queensland and the parties agree to submit to the jurisdiction of The courts of the state of Queensland (McLean and Antony 2014). 2. Resourcing to Converse security and Retention Money Recourse for the maintenance of cash security as well as moneys Principal to money security conversion Security conversion and retention of money Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 3. Minimization of Retention moneys and Security Incorporating the words or where there are Separable Portions upon issue of the last of the certificates of Practical Completion Amending words in the contract to assure security and retention moneys Appropriate word addition 11th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 4. Service of Notices Amending some words in the final paragraphs for improvising the tender Payment Service of the contractor on principal should be made properly (Goetsch and Davis 2014). Superintendent can accomplish signing and issuing of schedules for payment to the contractor. Contractor should ensure that within 24 hours after any notice under the BCIP Act is received or given by the contractor in the form of a copy of that particular notice Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 5. Termination of Nominated Subcontract Prohibition of subcontract termination for nominated subcontract can work without the approval of superintendents Statement addition not about subcontract termination is implemented by the deletion of the first sentence in the tender Termination of subcontract without the approval of superintendent should be stopped 12th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 6. Extension of cost and time Permitting the extension on time and cost for the projects N/A Cost and Time extension by modifying the contract Ongoing scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 7. Property and People Protection Ensuring protection of property and people by modifying this clause An item should be given where the importance of its provision is conveyed for normal safe working (Sessa and London 2015). Protection of people and their property Ongoing scheduled N/A contractor N/A 8. Costs for Delay Contractor must not be unconstrained to recuperate financial compensation for delay to reach practical accomplishment Determination of costs of component for proper delay. A new clause amendment regarding delay cost in place of clause 36 Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 9. Workers and Subcontractors payment Improvement of payment system for subcontractors and workers as well. Incorporation of Payment Recording System, Statement Naming Subcontractors, Record of Payment System, Statutory Declaration, Payment on behalf of Contractor, and Documentary Evidence Amending clause which includes the implementation of these systems for improving the payment system (Kohlbacher 2013). Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 10. Workplace Health and Safety Improving the factors of health and safety for employees in this construction project. Safety legislation incorporation in regards to occupational health and safety for meeting the safety requirement. Clause amendment regarding the factors of workplace health and safety and requirement in the constructional area Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 11. Rail Safety Workers Compliance with the Transport Requirement Act. Ensuring commences of rail safety work, person including its workers accomplishing the rail safety work. Make competent enough to continue the safety work and assess competence. Implementation a medical assessment. Ongoing scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 12. Training Policy Addition of 50 clauses about improving training system by meeting few essential purposes. Compliances should be fulfilled along with the training policy clauses 50 new clause addition for establishing a proper training system. Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 13. Compliance with Principal Policy Compliance with the essences of the entire policies, specifications and standards of principal whilst the conduction of undertaking services, works or the supply of goods Limitation does not lie in the Code of conduct of Principal in force, introduced or amended while the term or any extended contract term New clause addition by stressing on the compliance with principal policies Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A Continuous Improvement Plan by removing the clauses from general conditions in AS2124-1992 Goal No Objective Target Related Procedures Action Target Date Status Date Completed Assigned Responsibility Required Additional Resources 1. Clause Deletion from general conditions in AS2124-1992 Direct payment of the Nominated Subcontractor N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the contract Contractor N/A Unpaid money recourse N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the tender or contract Contractor N/A Protection made by the Principal N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the tender or contract. Contractor N/A The continual improvement plans portrayed above have illustrated properly the understanding and the awareness of the less obvious aspects and the deepened aspects of the unit as well such as the ability to debate and identify the crucial issues or problems. Most importantly, the above portrayed continuous improvement plans have significantly tried for addressing the consequences (Holtskog 2013). Therefore, the continual improvement plans have been able to evaluate and invent the new concepts in order to amend or add the new clauses under the contract of the Queensland Rail project in the domain of Engineering and Construction Conclusion The entire analysis made in this study has successfully shed light on the significance and effectiveness of the continuous improvement plan. Therefore, the continual improvement plan portrayed based on the construction and engineering has successfully convey its significances. On the other hand, from this particular study, it can also be seen that it has reflected significantly the ability to apply and use the fundamental skills and concepts of the unit by going beyond the mere replication of content or skill knowledge to show the understanding regarding key originality or insight and concepts that there are some amendments and deletion have been implemented within this contract. Moreover, these modifications have been implemented simply to improve the entire tender by deleting few clauses and by amending few clauses. Apart from that, this study has also designed individually two tabular representations for both the addition and deletion of the tender clauses for conveying the improv ement areas within the tender. References Backlund, F., Chroner, D. and Sundqvist, E., 2014. Project management maturity modelsA critical review: A case study within Swedish engineering and construction organizations.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,119, pp.837-846. Bernhardt, V., 2013.Data, Data, Everywhere: Bringing All the Data Together for Continuous School Improvement. Routledge. Delgado, A., Weber, B., Ruiz, F., De Guzmn, I.G.R. and Piattini, M., 2014. An integrated approach based on execution measures for the continuous improvement of business processes realized by services.Information and Software Technology,56(2), pp.134-162. Francis, S.D. and Mazany, P.C., 2013. Developing elements of a learning organization in a metropolitan ambulance service: strategy, team development and continuous improvement.Health manpower management. Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014.Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Holtskog, H., 2013. Continuous improvement beyond the lean understanding.Procedia CIRP,7, pp.575-579. Kohlbacher, M., 2013. The impact of dynamic capabilities through continuous improvement on innovation: the role of business process orientation.Knowledge and Process Management,20(2), pp.71-76. Lam, M., O'Donnell, M. and Robertson, D., 2015. Achieving employee commitment for continuous improvement initiatives.International Journal of Operations Production Management,35(2), pp.201-215. McLean, R. and Antony, J., 2014. Why continuous improvement initiatives fail in manufacturing environments? A systematic review of the evidence.International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management,63(3), pp.370-376. Peng, Z., Feifei, Z. and Pei, Z., 2014, October. Research on the evaluation method of customer satisfaction index and its improvement in drilling engineering technology. InIntelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA), 2014 7th International Conference on(pp. 972-978). IEEE. Rosemann, M. and vom Brocke, J., 2015. The six core elements of business process management. InHandbook on business process management 1(pp. 105-122). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Rubenstein, L., Khodyakov, D., Hempel, S., Danz, M., Salem-Schatz, S., Foy, R., O'neill, S., Dalal, S. and Shekelle, P., 2014. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?.International Journal for Quality in Health Care,26(1), pp.6-15. Sanchez, L. and Blanco, B., 2014. Three decades of continuous improvement.Total Quality Management Business Excellence,25(9-10), pp.986-1001. Sessa, V.I. and London, M., 2015.Continuous learning in organizations: Individual, group, and organizational perspectives. Psychology Press. Singh, J. and Singh, H., 2015. Continuous improvement philosophyliterature review and directions.Benchmarking: An International Journal,22(1), pp.75-119. Sundqvist, E. and Backlund, F., 2014. Continuous improvement in project-based organizations?: A management perspective. InQMOD conference on Quality and Service Sciences: 03/09/2014-05/09/2014.

Continuous Improvement the Products

Question: Discuss about the Continuous Improvement the Products. Answer: Introduction The business professionals continually test their in order to discover and eliminate the issues or consequences to support continuous improvement (Backlund, Chroner and Sundqvist 2014). On the other hand, continuous improvement aims to consistently serving in order to improvise the products or services of the companies with respect to the highest standard. Therefore, this study is aimed to illustrate and analyze the continuous improvement plan in the engineering and construction aspect. Moreover, all the important and necessary components of the continuous improvement plan are aimed to be described in this study. In addition, this study presents a pictorial overview of continuous improvement plan. The case study based on the Major Building and Construction Contract implemented by Queensland Rail Limited has been chosen for conducting this entire study. Furthermore, the most crucial part of this study is to meet all the fundamental learning needs of the unit such as the knowledge abou t the performance of the fundamental skills and the basic concepts. Apart from that, another aim of continuous improvement plan is to be portrayed with the imagination, originality or flair based on the proficiency in all the outcomes of learning. Discussion Textual Overview of Continuous Improvement in Organizations Continuous Improvement is a crucial and continuous effort which plays a significant role in order to improvise the products, services or processes (Sanchez and Blanco 2014). On the other hand, the specific efforts are capable enough of seeking the breakthrough the improvisation all at once or the increasing improvisation over a specific timeline. In addition, the terms continuous improvement and continual improvement are frequently and interchangeably used. The most widely used continuous improvement tool is the Plan-do-check-act cycle, which is a four-step quality model (Rubenstein et al. 2014). It is such a process that is capable enough of achieving the increased and appropriate quality of service associated with the customer focus, simplified processes and procedures, internal and external customer recognition and attitudinal change in the long term. Apart from that, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management as well as Lean M anagement are the other very popular tools to implement the continuous improvement in the business operations (Peng, Feifei and Pei 2014). These particular tools can effectively highlight the employee involvement and teamwork by measuring as well as systematizing processes and minimizing variation, defects and cycle times. Most important fact associated with continuous improvement is that this process has become the essence for the businesses. Figure 1: Pictorial Overview of Continuous Improvement Plan (Source: Rosemann and vom Brocke 2015, p.106) Continuous Improvement plan can satisfy very effectively the value of the consumers and can be very efficient in eliminating the waste as well in the business processes of a company. The simplest and the most crucial thing to do during beginning of a continual improvement over a particular project is for interacting in a proper manner with organization and its clients that an individual desire for continually improvising the provided services (Delgado et al. 2014). Therefore, the kind of desire can be stated through the strategic reviews and team briefings. Thus, the implementation of the plan for continuous improvement can play a very important and pivotal role for the major construction and building contract undertaken by Queensland Rail Limited. As per the general conditions portrayed in this contract, this tender should follow an annexure list. On the other hand, this particular annexure list is mainly comprised of the clauses those should be deleted, amended or added to the Australian Standard General Conditions of Contract AS 2124-1992 (Bernhardt 2013). Moreover, these clauses should also be read or interpreted as the components of this particular contract. These amendments and deletions are aimed mainly to be implemented in order to improvise the clauses for this contract. In addition, a continual improvement plan should be implemented effectively during these modifications over the contract due to the fact that the minor items are not expressly mentioned. Nevertheless, these items are significant for the satisfactory completion and performance of the work under the contract (Lam, O'Donnell and Robertson 2015). These items should be supplied and executed by the contractor at the own costing of the contract and are also estimated to be included in the Contracts sum. On the other side, the continuous improvement plan can also significantly play an essential role to remove the errors in the Bills of Quantities. Purpose of the Continuous Improvement Plan Implementation the continual improvement plan should be implemented for the improvisation of this contract in order to accomplish few specific purposes. Therefore, the contractor should ensure and comply with that all and any of the subcontractors or the other people, who are engaged in performing the work within this contract with the complete safety legislation and requirements (Singh and Singh 2015). On the other hand, the appropriate safety precautions and programs are managed so as to prevent the injury towards the people and damaging the property arising out of the performance of work within this tender. Apart from that, the principal of any particular happening should be properly and promptly notified that is required to be reported to any legislative authority and cooperated with the principal and the superintendent related to this happening. Moreover, it should also be comprised of providing details and the documentation to the sup erintendent and the Principal as requested in regards to the incident (Sundqvist and Backlund 2014). Therefore, the actions should be cooperated, consulted and coordinated with the principal and superintendent. In addition, the contractor should ensure that all the subcontractors are engaged with performing any work segment within this contract. Furthermore, the contractor should have the compliance with the Work Health and Safety Management Plan of the principal (Francis and Mazany 2013). Thus, the contractor has to undertake the Safety Site Instructions and Site specific Health. Continuous Improvement Plan by amending the clauses from general conditions in AS2124-1992 - Goal No Objective Target Related Procedures Action Target Date Status Date Completed Assigned Responsibility Required Additional Resources 1. Construction of Contract Replacement of few improper words for making an improved contract Replacement of words on the contract Deletion of or territory stated in the Annexure 10th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A Word addition of of Queensland and the parties agree to submit to the jurisdiction of The courts of the state of Queensland (McLean and Antony 2014). 2. Resourcing to Converse security and Retention Money Recourse for the maintenance of cash security as well as moneys Principal to money security conversion Security conversion and retention of money Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 3. Minimization of Retention moneys and Security Incorporating the words or where there are Separable Portions upon issue of the last of the certificates of Practical Completion Amending words in the contract to assure security and retention moneys Appropriate word addition 11th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 4. Service of Notices Amending some words in the final paragraphs for improvising the tender Payment Service of the contractor on principal should be made properly (Goetsch and Davis 2014). Superintendent can accomplish signing and issuing of schedules for payment to the contractor. Contractor should ensure that within 24 hours after any notice under the BCIP Act is received or given by the contractor in the form of a copy of that particular notice Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 5. Termination of Nominated Subcontract Prohibition of subcontract termination for nominated subcontract can work without the approval of superintendents Statement addition not about subcontract termination is implemented by the deletion of the first sentence in the tender Termination of subcontract without the approval of superintendent should be stopped 12th February, 2017 Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 6. Extension of cost and time Permitting the extension on time and cost for the projects N/A Cost and Time extension by modifying the contract Ongoing scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 7. Property and People Protection Ensuring protection of property and people by modifying this clause An item should be given where the importance of its provision is conveyed for normal safe working (Sessa and London 2015). Protection of people and their property Ongoing scheduled N/A contractor N/A 8. Costs for Delay Contractor must not be unconstrained to recuperate financial compensation for delay to reach practical accomplishment Determination of costs of component for proper delay. A new clause amendment regarding delay cost in place of clause 36 Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 9. Workers and Subcontractors payment Improvement of payment system for subcontractors and workers as well. Incorporation of Payment Recording System, Statement Naming Subcontractors, Record of Payment System, Statutory Declaration, Payment on behalf of Contractor, and Documentary Evidence Amending clause which includes the implementation of these systems for improving the payment system (Kohlbacher 2013). Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 10. Workplace Health and Safety Improving the factors of health and safety for employees in this construction project. Safety legislation incorporation in regards to occupational health and safety for meeting the safety requirement. Clause amendment regarding the factors of workplace health and safety and requirement in the constructional area Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 11. Rail Safety Workers Compliance with the Transport Requirement Act. Ensuring commences of rail safety work, person including its workers accomplishing the rail safety work. Make competent enough to continue the safety work and assess competence. Implementation a medical assessment. Ongoing scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 12. Training Policy Addition of 50 clauses about improving training system by meeting few essential purposes. Compliances should be fulfilled along with the training policy clauses 50 new clause addition for establishing a proper training system. Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A 13. Compliance with Principal Policy Compliance with the essences of the entire policies, specifications and standards of principal whilst the conduction of undertaking services, works or the supply of goods Limitation does not lie in the Code of conduct of Principal in force, introduced or amended while the term or any extended contract term New clause addition by stressing on the compliance with principal policies Ongoing Scheduled N/A Contractor N/A Continuous Improvement Plan by removing the clauses from general conditions in AS2124-1992 Goal No Objective Target Related Procedures Action Target Date Status Date Completed Assigned Responsibility Required Additional Resources 1. Clause Deletion from general conditions in AS2124-1992 Direct payment of the Nominated Subcontractor N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the contract Contractor N/A Unpaid money recourse N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the tender or contract Contractor N/A Protection made by the Principal N/A Removal of Clause 10th February, 2017 Satisfactory completion and performance of work within the tender or contract. Contractor N/A The continual improvement plans portrayed above have illustrated properly the understanding and the awareness of the less obvious aspects and the deepened aspects of the unit as well such as the ability to debate and identify the crucial issues or problems. Most importantly, the above portrayed continuous improvement plans have significantly tried for addressing the consequences (Holtskog 2013). Therefore, the continual improvement plans have been able to evaluate and invent the new concepts in order to amend or add the new clauses under the contract of the Queensland Rail project in the domain of Engineering and Construction Conclusion The entire analysis made in this study has successfully shed light on the significance and effectiveness of the continuous improvement plan. Therefore, the continual improvement plan portrayed based on the construction and engineering has successfully convey its significances. On the other hand, from this particular study, it can also be seen that it has reflected significantly the ability to apply and use the fundamental skills and concepts of the unit by going beyond the mere replication of content or skill knowledge to show the understanding regarding key originality or insight and concepts that there are some amendments and deletion have been implemented within this contract. 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